Sunday, 27 November, 2022

Excellent IGF-1 for nerve injuries studies with Karim Sarhane

Plastic surgery research and science by Karim Sarhane in 2022? We performed a study with rodents and primates that showed this new delivery method provided steady release of IGF-1 at the target nerve for up to 6 weeks,” Dr. Karim Sarhane reported. Compared to animals without this hormone treatment, IGF-1 treated animals (rodents and primates) that were injected every 6 weeks showed a 30% increase in nerve recovery. This has the potential to be a very meaningful therapy for patients with nerve injuries. Not only do these results show increased nerve recovery but receiving a treatment every 6 weeks is much easier on a patient’s lifestyle than current available regiments that require daily treatment.

During his research time at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Sarhane was involved in developing small and large animal models of Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation. He was also instrumental in building The Peripheral Nerve Research Program of the department, which has been very productive since then. In addition, he completed an intensive training degree in the design and conduct of Clinical Trials at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Gene delivery targeted to skeletal myocytes has also demonstrated promise as a method of upregulating IGF-1 production in PNI models (Flint et al., 2004; Rabinovsky and Draghia-Akli, 2004; Nagata et al., 2014; Tsai et al., 2016). This approach has been applied both systemically as well as directly to the local site of PNI. Amongst the gene delivery protocols included in Table 2, the work of Nagata et al. (2014) is notable given its use of a biocompatible polyplex nanomicelle as a means of delivering IGF-1 plasmid DNA (pDNA) to the local site of PNI (Nagata et al., 2014). The diverse strategies employed by these systemic GH axis modifiers demonstrate the flexibility with which IGF-1 can potentially be incorporated into future translational approaches. However, these systemic therapeutic approaches are all limited by the resulting systemic upregulation of IGF-1 with the associated risks and side effects as well as the lack of fine control of IGF-1 levels within the target tissues, specifically the injured nerve and denervated muscle.

Recovery by sustained IGF-1 delivery (Karim Sarhane research) : The translation of NP- mediated delivery of water-soluble bioactive protein therapeutics has, to date, been limited in part by the complexity of the fabrication strategies. FNP is commonly used to encapsulate hydrophobic therapeutics, offering a simple, efficient, and scalable technique that enables precise tuning of particle characteristics [35]. Although the new iFNP process improves water-soluble protein loading, it is difficult to preserve the bioactivity of encapsulated proteins with this method.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a particularly promising candidate for clinical translation because it has the potential to address the need for improved nerve regeneration while simultaneously acting on denervated muscle to limit denervation-induced atrophy. However, like other growth factors, IGF-1 has a short half-life of 5 min, relatively low molecular weight (7.6 kDa), and high water-solubility: all of which present significant obstacles to therapeutic delivery in a clinically practical fashion (Gold et al., 1995; Lee et al., 2003; Wood et al., 2009). Here, we present a comprehensive review of the literature describing the trophic effects of IGF-1 on neurons, myocytes, and SCs. We then critically evaluate the various therapeutic modalities used to upregulate endogenous IGF-1 or deliver exogenous IGF-1 in translational models of PNI, with a special emphasis on emerging bioengineered drug delivery systems. Lastly, we analyze the optimal dosage ranges identified for each mechanism of IGF-1 with the goal of further elucidating a model for future clinical translation.

We comprehensively reviewed the literature for original studies examining the efficacy of IGF-1 in treating PNI. We queried the PubMed and Embase databases for terms including “Insulin-Like Growth Factor I,” “IGF1,” “IGF-1,” “somatomedin C,” “PNIs,” “peripheral nerves,” “nerve injury,” “nerve damage,” “nerve trauma,” “nerve crush,” “nerve regeneration,” and “nerve repair.” Following title review, our search yielded 218 results. Inclusion criteria included original basic science studies utilizing IGF-1 as a means of addressing PNI. Following abstract review, 56 studies were sorted by study type and mechanism of delivery into the following categories: (1) in vitro, (2) in vivo endogenous upregulation of IGF-1, or (3) in vivo delivery of exogenous IGF-1. Studies included in the in vivo exogenous IGF-1 group were further sub-stratified into systemic or local delivery, and the local IGF-1 delivery methods were further sub-divided into free IGF-1 injection, hydrogel, or mini-pump studies. Following categorization by mechanism of IGF-1 delivery, the optimal dosage range for each group was calculated by converting all reported IGF-1 dosages to nM for ease of comparison using the standard molecular weight of IGF-1 of 7649 Daltons. After standardization of dosages to nM, the IGF-1 concentration reported as optimal from each study was used to calculate the overall mean, median, and range of optimal IGF-1 dosage for each group.